Common definitions for ionic liquid

2019-03-16 20:51:27 adman 28

Ionic liquid

An ionic liquid is a salt in the liquid state. In some contexts, the term has been restricted to salts whose melting point is below some arbitrary temperature, such as 100 °C. While ordinary liquids such as water and gasoline are predominantly made of electrically neutral molecules, ionic liquids are largely made of ions and short-lived ion pairs. These substances are variously called liquid electrolytes, ionic melts, ionic fluids, fused salts, liquid salts, or ionic glasses. Ionic liquids have many applications, such as powerful solvents and electrically conducting fluids. Salts that are liquid at near-ambient temperature are important for electric battery applications, and have been used as sealants due to their very low vapor pressure. Any salt that melts without decomposing or vaporizing usually yields an ionic liquid. Sodium chloride, for example, melts at 801 °C into a liquid that consists largely of sodium cations and chloride anions. Conversely, when an ionic liquid is cooled, it often forms an ionic solid—which may be either crystalline or glassy. The ionic bond is usually stronger than the Van der Waals forces between the molecules of ordinary liquids. For that reason, common salts tend to melt at higher temperatures than other solid molecules. Some salts are liquid at or below room temperature. Examples include compounds based on the 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium cation and include: EMIM:Cl, EMIM dicyanamide, C 3H 3N+ 2·N− 2, that melts at −21 °C; and 1-butyl-3,5-dimethylpyridinium bromide which becomes a glass below −24 °C.