Physico-Chemical Properties of Ionic Liquids

2019-02-24 14:59:52 adman 5

Melting Points

This is the most significant characteristic of ionic liquids! Cations and anions are two types of ions that ionic liquids possess. Selection of these two aspects determines the melting point of an ionic liquid. A cation with a low symmetry will have a low melting point, as compared to the one with a high symmetry. Poor intermolecular interactions with an appropriate distribution of charge in the cation will result in a low melting point.


Ionic liquids are denser than water. Cation and anion determine the magnitude of density. An increase in the bulkiness of the organic cation causes a decrease in the density of ionic liquid. Additionally, the density of the ionic liquid depends on the choice of the anion.

Thermal Stability

Almost all the ionic liquids are stable at and above 400C. Instead of cations, the nature of anions determines the thermal decomposition of ionic liquids. An increase in the hydrophilicity of anions causes a decrease in the thermal decomposition. Reportedly, various ionic liquids have different thermal stability, which is why it is suggested that decomposition of temperature of ionic liquids should be calculated via fast thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) scans.

Diffusion and Conductivity

Learning about conductivity and diffusion helps in effective application of ionic liquids. However, an appropriate and proper relationship between the transport properties and chemical structures is not investigated yet. This is why two equations, Nernst-Einstein and Stokes-Einstein are used to analyze the ionic diffusion of ionic liquids. These equations revealed that ionic size and ion pairs play a vital role in determining the conductivity of ionic liquids.

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